Guideline to Chicago Writing Standards

The Chicago writing standards employ among those in history, the arts, literature at their affiliated disciplines. This guideline draws upon the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style to format research papers, footnotes and end-notes, and the bibliography. The Chicago Manual of styles has two methods of citation; the notes and bibliography system which is dominantly used and the author-date system which differs slightly and is preferred for social sciences.

Notes and Bibliography Citation

This standard of writing is preferred for writers in the humanities because it is flexible enough to allow additional comments on the references. This style of citation uses footnotes, end-notes, and bibliography to reference intellectual material.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Each time you reference a source, either directly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized, include a note. A note inserted at the end of the page with the referenced content is a footnote while endnotes are a compilation inserted at the end of every chapter or where the document ends.

In both cases, a superscript number at the end of the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized content is used to link the note to the corresponding bibliographic reference information.

A written work with an accompanying bibliography can exclude the complete citation details in the notes. Where the bibliography is excluded, the first note in each citation should contain complete references to the author, title, and details of publication.

Subsequent citations of the same source of a work accompanied by a bibliography need only include, the author’s surname a shortened title (if word count exceeds four), and page number(s). Works that do not have a bibliography should repeat the complete citation for each new chapter.

Each consecutive citation of the same source can be substituted with the word “Ibid.” ( From Latin ibidem meaning ‘in the same place’).

For notes and bibliography citations, the footnote or endnote is numbered correspondingly with a full-size font.

The Bibliography

The bibliography is an alphabetical compilation of the referenced sources in the work written. It is placed on a stand-alone page at the end of the document before the index. While it includes cited sources, it may also display additional sources for further reference on the content of the work in question.

The citation entries are cited alphabetically on a last name basis. Where the author is not named, the title or a short description may be used.

As mentioned earlier where bibliographic information has already been included in the notes, the bibliography may be omitted.

The Elements of a bibliography

Author names: are inverted, the last name is written first followed by the first name and separated by a comma.

Source titles: book titles and journal titles are written in italics while articles, poetry, and chapter titles are written within quotation marks.

Publication details: including the year the source was published are written after the name of the journal or publisher.

Punctuation:  punctuating the bibliography mainly includes the separating of all the sources’ main elements using periods.

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